When a toilet stops up, it's very likely that the clog is not far down the drain and you can probably take care of it using the emblematic tool of the plumbing trade, the plunger.
Hold the toilet plunger over the toilet bowl's drain hole and lower it into the water so that you've retained air inside of it and the edges of the plunger are below the water line. Position it in the drain opening and push down, forcing the air out of the plunger. Then continue with several rapid up and down movements. You may have to try this several times. Lift the plunger out of the water to let more air into it between each effort.
Are your other drains working normally? If not, the clog is apparently in the main drain and no amount of plunging will dislodge it.
If the toilet is the only fixture affected and plunging doesn't work, you could try dissolving the clog -- but don't use harsh chemical products. Put 1 cup of baking soda and 1 cup of vinegar in the toilet and let it sit for about eight hours. The chemical reaction that occurs between the two substances might help break down whatever is clogging the drain.
Was the clog caused by a foreign object like a toy or something that fell off the bathroom counter? If you have rubber gloves you might try feeling around for it because it may be lodged close to the drain opening.
If you're a dedicated do-it-yourselfer you might buy a drain auger, an inexpensive snake-like tool found at most hardware stores. Otherwise, it's probably time to call in a professional plumber.
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Preventing future clogs:
Don’t flush any materials other than toilet paper. Feminine products should go in the trashcan, not the toilet. Many plumbers even recommend against putting "flushable wipes"; down the drain because they don't degrade well and can cause clogs down the line.
Try an extra 'insurance flush' halfway through if you're having a particularly manly experience.
Keep the counter space around the toilet and the back of the tank clear of small objects that might fall in without being noticed.
Plumbers often find little green army men and other small toys that probably didn’t jump into the toilet on their own. So have a little chat with junior.